Figures marked "CSIRO", are copyright CSIRO, but please feel free to use them, conditional on the figures not being altered, and their source being acknowledged, and with a link to this site where possible.

All other figures are copyright. Please do not copy without the owner's permission.

Sea level measurements

Paleo indicators

Our estimates of sea level before the earliest tide gauge records (17th century) are dependent on what are referred to as "paleo" indicators. These are indicators (usually natural, but sometimes man-made) whose age, and whose height, relative to modern-day sea level can be measured accurately enough to give worthwhile measurements of past sea level. While these measurements are not nearly as accurate as modern instrumental techniques they can still give useful restraints on sea level histories due to the long time period.

Some of the natural markers are:

  • raised beaches and wave cut notches
  • fossil shells and vegetable matter
  • submerged salt marshes

Some of the man-made markers are:

  • Ancient Roman (~1st century AD) fish tanks ("Piscina")
  • Crusader wells in the Palestine


Website owner: Benoit Legresy | Last modified 22/04/08

CMAR Home | CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere | ACE CRC
Legal Notice and Disclaimer | Copyright



CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere