Figures marked "CSIRO", are copyright
CSIRO, but please feel free to use them, conditional on the figures
not being altered, and their source being acknowledged, and with
a link to this site where possible.
All other figures are copyright. Please
do not copy without the owner's permission.
Sea level measurements
Our estimates of sea level before the earliest tide gauge records (17th century) are
dependent on what are referred to as "paleo" indicators. These are indicators (usually
natural, but sometimes man-made) whose age, and whose height, relative to modern-day sea
level can be measured accurately enough to give worthwhile measurements of past sea level.
While these measurements are not nearly as accurate as modern instrumental techniques they
can still give useful restraints on sea level histories due to the long time period.
Some of the natural markers are:
- raised beaches and wave cut notches
- fossil shells and vegetable matter
- submerged salt marshes
Some of the man-made markers are:
- Ancient Roman (~1st century AD) fish tanks ("Piscina")
- Crusader wells in the Palestine
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