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Project details

Title: SOTS: Southern Ocean Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania
Id: 2365
Short Name: SOTS
Investigator(s): Tom Trull
Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre [details]

Eric Schulz
Bureau of Meteorology [details]

Elizabeth Shadwick

Description: The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior moderating Earth’s average surface climate. SOTS uses a set of three automated moorings to measure these processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work.
Years: 2009
Link: https://www.marine.csiro.au/data/trawler/project_details.cfm?project_id=2365
Hierachy: IMOS

Publications

Conference Proceedings

Data Processing Report

Journal Article


Metadata.

Use [details] link to view survey details (map, reports, metadata etc) including links to download data.


List of surveys that this project was on. Click on column header to sort.

Use [details] link to view survey details (map, reports, metadata etc) including links to download data.

Survey InvestigatorDescription
IN2022_V03

[details]
Shadwick (CSIRO O&A) The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior, moderating Earth’s average surface climate. The IMOS - SOTS moorings are designed to remotely and automatically measure these oceanographic processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work.
IN2021_V02

[details]
Dr Shadwick (ACE CRC) The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior moderating Earth’s average surface climate. The IMOS SOTS sub-facility uses a set of two automated moorings to measure these processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work. The primary objective is to first deploy a new set of SOTS moorings (SOFS-9 and SAZ-22) and then recover the existing SOTS moorings (SOFS-8 and SAZ-21). Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges: • the SAZ sediment trap mooring collects samples to quantify the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles and investigate their ecological controls. • the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) mooring measures meteorological and ocean properties important to air-sea exchanges, ocean stratification, waves, currents and biological productivity and ecosystem structure. Water samples are collected for more detailed nutrient and plankton investigations after recovery. Ancillary work will obtain supporting information on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, Triaxus towed body, Continuous Plankton Recorder and autonomous profiling Biogeochemical-Argo floats, and potentially casts of a bio-optical sensor package.
IN2020_V09

[details]
Dr Shadwick (ACE/CRC)

This is the first research voyage since the MNF research schedule was suspended in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, this voyage will combine into a single voyage two research projects originally scheduled for separate voyages:

  • Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) maintenance (Dr Elizabeth Shadwick, CSIRO): Deploy two new SOTS moorings (SOFS-9 and SAZ-22) and recover two existing ones (SOFS-8 and SAZ-21). These automated deep-water moorings measure the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them.
  • Oceanographic mooring recovery (Dr Steve Rintoul, CSIRO): Recover an oceanographic mooring deployed during voyage IN2018_V05 to investigate Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This mooring has collected data to improve understanding of how Southern Ocean currents respond to changes in wind speed.

IN2019_V02

[details]
Thomas W. Trull (CSIRO O&A) Integrated Monitoring Observing System Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (Chief Scientist: Professor Tom Trull, ACE-CRC) The Southern Ocean Time Series provides world-leading automated observations from deep-ocean moorings of the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them. These results contribute to forward projections of anthropogenic climate warming, inform the setting of emissions targets, illuminate controls on climate variability, and provide a baseline for impacts on ocean pelagic ecology. Sensor data is returned live to the internet and samples are returned annually for further study in shore laboratories. Surface and subsurface subantarctic Biogeochemistry of Carbon and Iron, Southern Ocean Time Series site (Lead Principal Investigator: Prof Philip Boyd, UTAS) The Southern Ocean straddles the waters between Australia and Antarctica and has two distinct regions – the subantarctic and the polar seas. The latter is comprehensively studied by expeditions by Australia’s Antarctic Division, whereas the subantarctic has received much less attention. This voyage aims to determine processes within the subantarctic environment that control productivity, foodwebs and cycles of elements such as carbon. Enhanced understanding will maximise investments, such as in ocean time-series in subpolar waters, and enable better predictions to be made on how marine life and chemistry are controlled by both natural and human-made shifts in climate and ocean conditions.
IN2018_V07

[details]
Eric Schulz (BOM) RV Investigator research voyage in2018_v07, titled “SOTS: Southern Ocean Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania.” Voyage objectives: 1. Deploy SOFS-7.5 meteorology/biogeochemistry mooring & triangulate. 2. Do a CTD (1 cast to 2250m) at the SOFS-7.5 site, including collecting samples for nutrients, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and POC & pigments. 3. Carry out underway air sensor measurement comparison between ship and SOFS-7.5 mooring. The priority is deploying SOFS-7.5 mooring (objective 1).
IN2018_V02

[details]
Thomas W. Trull Integrated Monitoring Observing System Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (Chief Scientist: Professor Tom Trull, ACE-CRC) The Southern Ocean Time Series provides world-leading automated observations from deep-ocean moorings of the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them. These results contribute to forward projections of anthropogenic climate warming, inform the setting of emissions targets, illuminate controls on climate variability, and provide a baseline for impacts on ocean pelagic ecology. Sensor data is returned live to the internet and samples are returned annually for further study in shore laboratories. Subantarctic Biogeochemistry of Carbon and Iron, Southern Ocean Time Series site (Lead Principal Investigator: Professor Philip Boyd, UTAS) The Southern Ocean straddles the waters between Australia and Antarctica and has two distinct regions – the subantarctic and the polar seas. The latter is comprehensively studied by expeditions by Australia’s Antarctic Division, whereas the subantarctic has received much less attention. This voyage aims to determine processes within the subantarctic environment that control productivity, foodwebs and cycles of elements such as carbon. Enhanced understanding will maximise investments, such as in ocean time-series in subpolar waters and enable better predictions to be made on how marine life and chemistry are controlled by both natural and human-made shifts in climate and ocean conditions.
IN2017_V02

[details]
Thomas W Trull (CSIRO/ACE CRC) Eric Schulz (BOM) The Southern Ocean Time Series provides world-leading automated observations from deep-ocean moorings of the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them. These results contribute to forward projections of anthropogenic climate warming, inform the setting of emissions targets, illuminate controls on climate variability, and provide a baseline for impacts on ocean pelagic ecology. Sensor data is returned live to the internet and samples are returned annually for further study in shore laboratories. The primary objective is to first deploy a new set of SOTS moorings (SAZ-19 and SOFS-6) and then recover the existing SOTS moorings (FluxPulse-1 lower section, and SAZ-18). Additional work will obtain ancillary information on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and autonomous profiling "Bio-Argo" floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: * the SAZ sediment trap mooring collects samples to quantify the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and investigate their ecological controls. * the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) measures meteorological properties and ocean properties important to air-sea exchanges, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. * the (now superceded) Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focused on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. * the FluxPulse mooring combines some elements of Pulse onto the SOFS platform to create a combined mooring, and was deployed for the first time in 2016, but broke into two sections. The top section has been recovered. The bottom section remains to be recovered. This combined mooring was intended to meet financial constraints. In 2017 we will use the simpler SOFS design, while redesigning FluxPulse for relaunch in 2018. Piggyback projects: * International Nutrient Intercalibration Exercise * Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Distribution and Abundance of Seabirds * Trace Element Cycling * Acoustic estimates of zooplankton and fish distributions
IN2016_V02

[details]
Tom Trull (CSIRO, ACE-CRC) RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v02. Titled SOTS: Southern Ocean Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania. This voyage combines work from three projects. SOTS, CAPRICORN and Eddy Voyage objectives: SOTS The primary objective is to first deploy a reduced set (SAZ and FluxPulse) and then recover a full set of SOTS moorings (SOFS, Pulse, and SAZ). Additional work will obtain ancillary information on the atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and autonomous profiling "Bio-Argo" floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: * the SAZ sediment trap mooring focuses on quantifying the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and collecting samples to investigate their ecological controls * the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) focuses on air properties, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. * the Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focuses on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. * the FluxPulse mooring combines some elements of Pulse onto the SOFS platform to create a combined mooring, which will be deployed for the first time in 2016. This combination meets financial constraints while still measuring almost all planned parameters CAPRICORN * The primary objective is to collect cloud, aerosol, precipitation, radiation and atmospheric composition measurements over the Southern Ocean over 30 days, and to capture the latitudinal variability of these properties from the latitude of Hobart down to 55-60S if time allows. The Investigator will be equipped with a state-of the art suite of instruments for that purpose (see list in voyage plan). * In order to address the "satellite validation" objectives, we need to locate the research vessel under the track of the CloudSat-CALIPSO instrument and within the larger swath of the NASA GPM and A-Train radars and radiometers. This will be achieved in coordination with the requirement to sample a mesoscale oceanic eddy using a dedicated pattern that will include satellite track following and mesoscale eddy sampling using radial transects, after the SOTS moorings are deployed and recovered. * In order to address the "ACCESS model validation" objectives, we need to sample the sub-grid scale variability of the atmospheric properties, therefore we will undertake some periods of intensive sampling of 12*12 km2 grids with small-scale lawnmower patterns, ensuring that the aerosol measurements are not perturbed by the ship exhaust. The timing and location of these grids will be determined during the voyage. Eddy * Deploy a suite of floats, two different models per eddy, to obtain profiles of temperature, salinity, velocity, oxygen, nitrate, pH and bio-optics near the eddy centre while we perform spatial surveys. * Measure the velocities and mixing in the two eddies. * Quantify the elemental fluxes associated with the eddy circulation, including nutrient transport and air-sea CO2 flux. * Measure the biological response to the circulation and nutrient transport, including primary productivity, trace metal biogeochemistry, new production and the respiration of downward carbon flux (using free-drifting sediment traps). Our combined ship-satellite-float observations will provide the most comprehensive view thus far of Southern Ocean eddies. Our work also contributes to emerging international programs in the Southern Ocean that are combining expanded autonomous observations with large scale modelling efforts. Full details are in the in2016_v02 voyage plan.
IN2015_V01

[details]
T. Trull (CSIRO O&A); E. Schulz (BOM) MNF RV Investigator Research Voyage IN2015_v01. IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series(SOTS) Automated Moorings for Climate and Carbon Cycle Studies Southwest Of Tasmania. Scientific objectives: The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior moderating Earth's average surface climate. SOTS uses a set of three automated mooring to measure these processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work. Voyage objectives: The primary objective is to deploy a full set of SOTS moorings (SOFS, Pulse, and SAZ) and to obtain ancillary information of the oceanographic conditions at the time of deployment using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and deployment of autonomous profiling Bio-Argo floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: i) the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) focuses on air properties, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. ii) the Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focuses on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. iii) the SAZ sediment trap mooring focuses on quantifying the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and collecting samples to investigate their ecological controls. Additional water sampling and sensor comparisons against shipboard systems provide quality control and spatial context, which is further augmented by Bio-Argo float and Triaxus towed body deployments, and satellite remote sensing. Please read voyage plan for full description.
SS2013_V06

[details]
E. Schulz (BOM) MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_v06. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140º E). Scientific Objectives: The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Recovery and Deployments: Recovery of: SOFS-4 mooring, Pulse-10 mooring, SAZ-15 mooring. Ancillary work includes underway and CTD sensor measurements and sample collections, and potentially zooplankton net sampling and towing of a continuous plankton recorder (CPR).
SS2013_V03

[details]
T. Trull (CMAR-UTAS-ACE) MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_v03. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). Scientific Objectives The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will carry out the annual servicing of SOTS moorings, along with a limited set of ancillary underway and on-station water column observations. The moorings to be deployed are: SOFS-4 mooring to make meteorological and upper ocean measurements of physical and chemical properties important to air-sea exchange of heat, water, momentum, and dissolved gases (oxygen and CO2). Pulse-10 mooring to make upper ocean measurements of properties that control carbon uptake and export to the ocean interior, including temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, light, oxygen, total dissolved gases, phytoplankton fluorescence, particle backscatter, and dissolved nitrate, and collect 24 paired water samples later study of nutrients and phytoplankton identification. SAZ-16 mooring to collect sediment trap samples in the deep sea (below 1000m) to quantify the transfer of particulate carbon and other materials to the ocean interior. The moorings to be recovered are: Pulse-9 mooring SOFS-3 mooring (bottom half only - top recovered in 2012 after it broke loose) (SAZ-15 mooring will not be recovered, and will remain in the ocean until recovery in 2014) Ancillary measurements to be carried out include swath mapping, underway and CTD sensor and sample collections, zooplankton net sampling, towing of a continuous plankton recorder, launch of Argo floats, and a piggy-back project to calibrate ship acoustic sensors.
SS2012_V03

[details]
T. Trull (CMAR-UTAS-ACE) SS2012_V03.Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Part extract from voyage plan, please read plan for full details.
SS2011_V07

[details]
E. Schulz (BOM) Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) observations for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will deploy the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-2) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. Extracted from Voyage plan please read plan for full description.
SS2011_V03

[details]
T. Trull (CMAR-UTAS-ACE) SS2011_V03. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Extracted from voyage plan, please read plan for full details.
SS2011_V01

[details]
E. Schulz (BOM) Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2011_v01. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies south-west of Tasmania(47°S, hundred and 40°E). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will recover the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. It will also recover the Pulse-7 mooring that has been making measurements of temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, photosynthetically available radiation, oxygen, total dissolved gases, and phytoplankton fluorescence and backscatter. The Pulse-7 mooring also collects 24 paired water samples, approximately weekly, for later measurement of dissolved nitrate, silicate, inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity.
SS2010_V07

[details]
T Trull (ACE CRC) Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2010_V07. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies south-west of Tasmania(47°S, hundred and 40°E). Scientific Objectives The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This Voyage will: i) deploy the Pulse-7 mooring ii) recover the SAZ-12 (and redeploy as SAZ-13) deep ocean sediment trap mooring iii) service the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring deployed on SS1002 in April 2010 iv) carry out underway and CTD based measurements v) deploy autonomous profiling floats and an ocean glider Taken from ss2010_v07 Voyage plan.
SS2010_V02

[details]
T. Trull (CMAR-UTAS-ACECRC) Scientific Objectives The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This biological pump drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will deploy for the first time the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. It will also recover the Pulse-6 mooring that has been making measurements of temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, photosynthetically available radiation, oxygen, total dissolved gases, and phytoplankton fluorescence and backscatter. The Pulse-6 mooring also collects 24 paired water samples, approximately weekly, for later measurement of dissolved nitrate, silicate, inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity. Taken from the MNF Voyage Plan.
SS2009_V04

[details]
T Trull (ACE CRC) Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2009_v04. Chief Scientist Dr Tom Trull. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles.... This voyage will recover and redeploy a sediment trap mooring that collects sinking particles at approximately fortnightly intervals at three depths (near 1000, 2000, and 3800 m), and deploy a second mooring that will make measurements of temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, photosynthetically available radiation, oxygen, total dissolved gases, and phytoplankton fluorescence and backscatter. The second mooring will also collect 48 water samples for later measurement of dissolved nitrate, silicate, inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity.... Taken from the SS 4/2009 Voyage Plan.
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