Data Trawler - Project details

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Project details

Title: Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Radiation Interactions eXperiment (CAPRIX)
Id: 2586
Acronym: CAPRIX
Investigator(s): Alain Protat
Bureau of Meteorology [details]

Description: Cloud microphysical properties produced from the competition between supercooled liquid and ice particles for water vapour in subfreezing cumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean and off the coast of Antarctica have been directly linked to errors in absorbed solar radiation at the sea surface, which have been further linked to uncertainty in predicting global climate sensitivity under CO2 warming and sea surface temperature biases in climate models.
Description (full): The proposal is to collect a suite of aerosol, cloud, surface radiation, surface eddy momentum, heat and moisture fluxes, and precipitation observations in areas characterized by high ocean productivity and to continue to build a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between ocean productivity, aerosol formation, cloud microphysics and then link to rainfall properties and surface radiation.
Years: 2020 to 2022



List of surveys that this project was on. Click on column header to sort.

Use [details] link to view survey details (map, reports, metadata etc) including links to download data.

Survey InvestigatorDescription

Legresy, Benoit (CSIRO O&A) SWOT-ACC aims to significantly improve our capability to observe and understand the impact of small-scale (10-100 km) motions on dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The novel Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide, for the first time, measurements of sea surface height along a broad swath, with spatial resolution at least 10X better than traditional altimeters. While SWOT will provide unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, in situ subsurface ocean measurements are essential to validate the satellite observations and to determine the relationship between small-scale variability in sea surface height and subsurface ocean circulation and dynamics. SWOT-ACC will collect multidisciplinary measurements along a swath crossing a standing meander of the ACC. The meander is a hot spot of eddy activity, cross-front exchange, and energetic small-scale motions. The experiment aims to characterise the small-scale variability in the meander; to relate small-scale variability in sea surface height to subsurface ocean structure; to quantify the role of small-scale processes in facilitating transport of heat and carbon between the surface ocean and the interior, and across the ACC; and to investigate the coupling between physical, biogeochemical, and biological processes at small spatial and temporal scales. By providing essential in situ validation data from a high energy environment, SWOT-ACC will enable application of this revolutionary instrument to other high energy environments, including western boundary currents and the circumpolar ACC. SWOT-ACC will underpin improved climate projections and ocean forecasts by delivering knowledge needed to improve the representation of the influence of small-scale motions on large-scale dynamics. Research users to benefit from the experiment include space agencies, climate modellers and users of climate projections, and users of ocean forecasts (e.g. defence, search & rescue, shipping, and managers of marine resources).

Elizabeth Shadwick (CSIRO O&A) The primary objective is to first deploy a new set of SOTS moorings (SOFS-12 and SAZ-25) and then recover the existing SOTS moorings (SOFS-11 and SAZ-24). Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges: • the SAZ sediment trap mooring collects samples to quantify the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles and investigate their ecological controls. • the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) mooring measures meteorological and ocean properties important to air-sea exchanges, ocean stratification, waves, currents and biological productivity and ecosystem structure. Water samples are collected for more detailed nutrient and plankton investigations after recovery. Ancillary work will obtain supporting information on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, Continuous Plankton Recorder and autonomous glider, and potentially casts of a bio-optical sensor package. Voyage objectives: 1. Deploy SOFS-12 meteorology/biogeochemistry mooring. 2. Deploy SAZ-25 sediment trap mooring. 3. Recover SOFS-11 meteorology/biogeochemistry mooring. 4. Recover SAZ-24 sediment trap mooring. 5. CTD sampling (2 cast to 4550m, 2 to 600m) at the SOTS site, including collecting samples for nutrients, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and particulate matter analyses. 6. Ship meteorological observations at SOFS buoy for comparisons. 7. Deployment of CSIRO glider for satellite calibration validation during the SWOT fast sampling phase, in support of IN2023_V07. 8. Potential recovery of BGC-Argo float, or CSIRO glider, using new recovery device. 9. Tow CPR on transit to SOTS (after the seamount survey). 10. Carry out underway air and water sampling and sensor measurements, including bio-optics and bio-acoustics.

Alix Post (GA) This study has two main scientific objectives: i) to understand past changes in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production using long sediment cores from the continental slope over multiple warm periods during the Pleistocene; ii) develop an improved bathymetry model to support oceanographic modelling of AABW pathways. Sediment core records of previous warmer interglacials will provide an analogue for understanding the impact of any future changes in bottom water production associated with a warming climate. This project will recover long sediment cores from the shelf and slope off Cape Darnley to provide palaeoceanographic records over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, including previous interglacials when Antarctic air temperatures were 2 to 4.5°C warmer than today. A multi-proxy approach, combining sedimentological, geochemical and biological proxies, will provide evidence of the nature and timing of past changes in AABW formation, and associated variations in meltwater input, and the extent of the Cape Darnley polynya. AABW has previously been associated with unique and diverse benthic ecosystems, including hydrocorals. We will investigate the presence and distribution of hydrocorals, and, if present, analyse their carbonate skeletons to understand past water mass variability over recent centuries, complementing the sediment core records.

Shadwick (CSIRO O&A) The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior, moderating Earth’s average surface climate. The IMOS - SOTS moorings are designed to remotely and automatically measure these oceanographic processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work.

Dr Kawaguchi (AAD) The primary objective of this voyage is to ensure the orderly development of the krill fishery in waters off Australia’s Antarctic Territory. This will be achieved by updating the biomass estimate of Antarctic krill, enabling a revision of the catch limit within CCAMLR Division 58.4.2-East in the Indian Ocean (IO) sector of the Southern Ocean. Commercial krill fishing in the IO sector recommenced in 2016/17 after a 25 year hiatus. The current krill catch limit in the region is based on surveys conducted 14 years ago. There has been no regular ecosystem monitoring to assess how the system may have changed since then.

Prof. Philip Boyd (UTAS) Voyage objectives: 1) A modular 3.5 day cycle of diverse water column activities from deployment and recovery of surface tethered free floating moorings (RESPIRE, particle sediment traps), to deployment from the ship of CTD, profiling cameras, net tows, ISP’s, and water sampling to run lab based experiments. This cycle will be repeated 3 times at the subantarctic site (lower productivity and particle export) and 4 times at the polar site (bloom/bust and higher productivity and particle export). The mooring deployment / recovery is the most weather dependent event. Weather days will be factored in and may result in a modification of the number of cycles or their duration. In order to fully meet the multiple aims of the voyage we will carry out additional sampling (to add to our time series) on ‘weather days’ that we do not use for bad weather. 2) Land-based satellite oceanography will be linked to shipboard bio-optical and optical sampling for validation (within the 3.5 day cycle of 1) above). It will be further underpinned by the deployment of gliders (from collaborators at CALTEC, USA) – one at each site (recovered post voyage downstream off New Zealand by another vessel). Weather should be of little influence for these deployment activities across the 45 day voyage. 3) Deployment of two state-of-the-art BGC-ARGO profiling floats with miniaturised UVP (Underwater Vision Profiler) on a 5 year mission. The floats telemeter datasets and their output will be modelled by collaborators in Spain. If weather conditions permit we may attempt to retrieve each BGC-ARGO for a data download (using ‘Trull’ device – see equipment manifest for details). 4) SOLACE sits under the JETZON umbrella - . The site is currently being developed and we are already (in anticipation of our voyage) contributing to metadata development and modelling initiatives. 5) Conduct aerosol and rain sampling: a. ASP to provide advance notice of incineration events and a final record of incineration events for the voyage to both the aerosols and atmospheric teams. b. Require access to aerosol sampling lab. 6) Cosmic ray measurements from underway instrument (Dr Grahame Rosolen, CSIRO). 7) Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Radiation Interactions eXperiment (CAPRIX) (Dr Alain Protat, BOM). 8) Completion of noise signature testing (MNF). a. This will be completed in Storm Bay immediately following departure and will be structured so as not to impact science equipment testing in Storm Bay and the voyage schedule. 9) To complement the CTD casts and regular BGC Argo floats, underway instrumentation will be running and will require some estimate of the mixed layer depth to support these observations. To give subsurface temperature structure while the ship is in transit, deployment of 12 x XBTs to observe subsurface properties while the ship is in transit between the 2 sites will be undertaken. These deployments are not permitted occur within Australian Marine Parks (AMPs).
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